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2. Explain how DNA is related to proteins.


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6. List and describe the 2 steps of protein synthesis.

AAC is a membrane protein that acts like a revolving door - transporting ADP into mitochondria (to be converted to ATP) and ATP out of mitochondria and into the cytoplasm (Wang and Tajkhorshid 2008).

Your DNA contains the recipes for the proteins that your cells make.

Scientists are studying many aspects of the ER and Golgi apparatus, including a built-in quality control mechanism cells use to ensure that proteins are properly made before leaving the ER (Source: ).

Ribosomes make proteins and proteins make cells.

The MS is characterized by a multiplex risk factorthat arises from insulin resistance accompanying abnormal adiposedeposition and function ().Patients with MS present with high blood pressure, a large waistcircumference and high levels of plasma triglycerides with anincreased risk of developing DM2 and CVD (,).Physiopathological changes encountered in MS are varied, includinginsulin resistance, dyslipemia and obesity (,).Any metabolic changes related to obesity may be attributed to theincreased intra-abdominal fat mass, and are independent of thetotal mass of the body ().

Proteins that require special conditions or are destined to become part of the cell membrane are processed in the ER and then handed off to another organelle called the Golgi apparatus.

DNA and RNA are involved in the synthesis of proteins.

Inside every cell, ribosomes read mRNA sequences and hook together protein building blocks called amino acids in the order specified by the code: Groups of three nucleotides in mRNA code for each of 20 amino acids.

The production of proinflammatory molecules[interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), plasminogenactivator inhibitor (PAI)-1, angiotensinogen, complement factor 3(C3), tissue factor and other inflammatory cytokines] in theadipose tissue during obesity contributes to a low degree ofsystemic inflammation, which is observed in a variety of chronicdiseases associated with MS () (–). Resistin and TNF-α, are adipokinesassociated with insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle (,).Furthermore, increasing adiposity and insulin resistance mayinteract, thus raising the levels of C-reactive protein ().

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  • DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis - PBS

    After learning that DNA had spiral shape, Watson and Crick determined the structure of DNA.

  • Transcription is the first of overall two protein synthesis steps

    Although both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, there are key differences in the structure and function of RNA and DNA.

  • DNA/RNA/protein/endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi

    These proteins typically span the whole membrane, making contactwith the outside environment and the cytoplasm.

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DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis - PBS

In order to synthesize a protein, the genetic information in the DNA must be converted to an amino acid sequence. Its similar to the way that someone needs to read a recipe and mix the correct ingredients together.

Molecular Biology: DNA structure and function - …

Eventually, the ribosome will come to a stop codon. The three stop codons don't code for any amino acids, and so the process comes to a halt. The protein chain produced up to that point is then released from the ribosome, and then folds itself up into its secondary and tertiary structures.

SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Protein Synthesis

Initially, the membrane transport protein (also called a carrier)is in its closed configuration which does not allow substrates or othermolecules to enter or leave the cell.

Protein Structure - Biology Encyclopedia - cells, …

This attachment of aphosphate group to the carrier molecule causes a conformational changein (or achange in the shape of ) the protein so that a channel opens between theinside and outside of the cell membrane.

Ribosomes - Protein Synthesis - Cronodon

The Piwi-interacting RNAs, which associate
with proteins called piwi proteins which help regulate splicing, especially in spermatogenesis (sperm cell production).

Protein synthesis :: DNA from the Beginning

PPARs are connected to the nuclear membrane, andtheir main function is storage regulation and the catabolization offatty acids (), when activatedby their ligands (synthetic or endogenous), PPARs control severalgenes which are involved in intermediate metabolism (). To date, three isoforms have beenidentified: PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ and PPAR-γ (). Each PPAR forms a heterodimer withRXR. This heterodimer joins the PPAR response elements (PPREs),which regulate target gene domains. The activation of PPARs by anappropriate ligand results in the recruitment of co-activators andthe loss of co-repressors that remodel chromatin and activatetranscription ().

From RNA to Protein Synthesis - YouTube

We left the messenger RNA a little while back with part of a ribosome attached to it at the AUG start codon. The diagram shows this, together with a small part of the RNA base sequence downstream of the start codon needed to make an imaginary protein chain. The bases upstream of the start codon aren't relevant to us once the ribosome has found the place to start from.

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