18/02/2008 · What is dehydration synthesis
Define dehydration synthesis and discuss its importance as it relates ..
the reverse of dehydration synthesis
George Watson, Ph.D., was a full professor at the University of Southern California. His biochemical research career spanned from 1950 to the mid-eighties. His research encompassed the role of biological oxidation in defining metabolic individuality, particularly as relates to psycho-chemical states and personality disorders. The oxidation rate, as he describes it, is the rate of intracellular conversion of nutrients to energy, involving glycolysis, Kreb's/citric acid cycle and beta oxidation. Through his objective testing, he classified people as being fast, slow, or sub-oxidizers. Fast Oxidizers produce an acid venous blood pH, and Slow Oxidizers produce an alkaline venous blood pH. He found that manifestations of physical and psychological imbalance occur when the venous pH deviates too far from the optimal pH of 7.46. He states that when metabolism, as reflected through oxidation and venous plasma pH, is too far out of balance, the patient is more susceptible to disease. His book, Nutrition and Your Mind (FN4), eloquently describes his fascinating research. The turn-around that he effected with many of his patients is phenomenal. I practiced nutrition founded upon his approach for many years. From a statement set forth in his research, I subsequently developed a mini-glucose tolerance test to determine acid-alkaline balance and its relationship to the oxidative processes. Dr. Watson's oxidative research is of equal importance to Dr. Pottenger's neuro-hormonal research in Metabolic Type Testing.
I. Introduction to Genetics
A. Identify important people and events in the history of genetics.
B. Define the main areas of genetics such as molecular genetics,
transmission genetics and population genetics.
II. Cellular Basis of Structure and Growth
A. Compare Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells.
B. Review reproductive and development processes.
1. Compare the processes and significance of mitosis and meiosis.
2. Define development: growth and differentiation.
III. Mendelian Genetics: Basic Principles of Inheritance
A. Discuss Mendel's research on pea plants.
1. Solve problems involving dominant and recessive traits using Punnett Squares.
2. Apply Mendel's Laws of Dominance, Segregation and Independent Assortment.
B. Apply basic probability concepts to solve genetics problems.
C. Solve problems involving multiple alleles to include human blood groups.
D. Solve problems involving polygenic inheritance.
E. Calculate gene frequencies using the Hardy-Weinberg Law.
IV. Human Genetics
A. Analyze pedigree diagrams.
1. Recognize pedigree symbols.
2. Calculate simple probabilities related to pedigree analysis.
3. Analyze autosomal pedigrees of recessive inheritance.
4. Analyze autsomal pedigrees of dominant inheritance.
5. Analyze pedigree of sex-linked traits.
B. Describe the outcomes of genetic counseling.
C. Use online and library resources related to human genetics.
V. Human Sexuality
A. Review the female reproductive system and make reproductive systems.
B. Compare spermatogenesis in the male with oogenesis in the female.
C. Compare development of male and female genotypes.
D. Describe genetic sexual disorders, including:
1. Single gene disorders, such as pseudohermaphroditism and testicular pominization and chromosomal disorders, such as
a. Turner's Syndrome
b. Klinefelter's Syndrome
c. XYY Males
VI. Reproductive Technologies and Choices
A. Describe birth technologies, such as:
1. Artificial insemination
2. Surrogate motherhood
3. In-Vitro fertilization
B. Describe prenatal diagnosis, including:
2. Chorionic Villus sampling
C. Compare different bioethical considerations related to new reproductive technologies and choices.
VII. Informational Macromolecules
A. Review the chemistry of amino acids, proteins and enzymes.
B. Describe and discuss DNA, and the following functions of genetic material:
3. Structure and replication of DNA
C. Describe RNA and protein synthesis to include:
1. Messenger and Transfer RNA
2. Protein synthesis
D. Illustrate the basic mechanisms of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
A. Discuss examples of genetic variation, including:
1. Dominance and recessiveness (Phenylketonuria)
2. Expressivity (Diabetes)
3. Penetrance (Polydactyly)
4. Delayed Onset (Huntington's Chorea)
5. Co-Dominance (Human Blood Groups)
6. Epistasis (Congenital Deafness)
B. Discuss examples of variation caused by environment.
A. Describe different chromosomal mutations, including:
5. Downs Syndrome
B. Describe types of gene mutations, including:
1. Point mutations
2. Frameshift mutations
3. Spontaneous mutations
4. Causes of mutations
C. Discuss the genetic basis of many cancers including the role of:
2. Tumor suppressor genes
3. Chemical mutagens/carcinogens
4. Radiation and other environmental factors
X. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
A. Describe the main application areas of biotechnology in medicine, agriculture and other areas of society.
B. Describe basic techniques used in recombinant DNA.
C. Explain the basic principles behind the technologies involved in gene amplification and sequencing.
D. Discuss ethical considerations of new technologies.
XI. Laboratory and Research Skills
A. Demonstrate familiarity with the use of online biotechnology resources.
B. Identify basic modes of Mendelian inheritance in selected species.
C. Demonstrate basic techniques for staining and studying chromosomes.
D. Use appropriate statistical and quantitative techniques such as chi-square
tests in hypothesis testing.
E. Demonstrate principles and proper techniques associated with modern genetic tools such as electrophoresis, and DNA amplification.
F. Critically interpret information obtained using modern genetic techniques.
G. Demonstrate elementary techniques associated with the use of key experimental organisms in modern genetic analysis and biotechnology such as bacteria, yeast and Drosophila.
H. Use appropriate laboratory safety skills and sterile technique.
Dehydration Synthesis VS Hydrolysis - Bio Molecules
While most immunizations provide protection for many years, influenza vaccine must be administered annually because of continuing changes in the virus and, to a lesser extent, waning patient immunity. Since influenza is a seasonal illness whose infectiousness is typically widespread in the winter months, the vaccine should be administered in the autumn. Those most in need of immunization are older employees and those with underlying illnesses or immune deficiencies, including diabetes and chronic lung, heart and kidney problems. Employees in health care institutions should be encouraged to be immunized not only because they are more likely to be exposed to persons with the infection, but also because their continuing ability to work is critical in the event of a serious outbreak of the illness. A recent study has shown that vaccination against influenza offers substantial health-related and economic benefits for healthy, working adults also. Since the morbidity associated with the illness can typically result in a week or more of disability, often involving multiple employees in the same unit at the same time, there is sufficient incentive for employers to prevent the resultant impact on productivity by offering this relatively innocuous and inexpensive form of immunization. This becomes especially important when public health authorities anticipate major changes in the virus and predict a major epidemic for a given season.
I. Body Organization
A. Define anatomy and physiology
B. Explain the relationship between anatomy and physiology
C. List the characteristics of life
D. List the factors required for maintenance of life
E. Use accepted anatomical terminology to describe body positions, sections, and regions
F. Locate major body cavities
G. Identify membranes
H. Name the major organ systems and list the organs associated with
I. Identify vital signs
J. Define homeostasis and summarize its significance
K. Describe the systemic approach of study of the human body and organize the body in this format.
A. Identify the human cell
B. Identify the structures of the human cell
C. List the functions of principle cell structures
D. Summarize the Cell Theory
E. Explain physiological movements through cell membranes
F. Identify the stages of cell division in human cells
G. Demonstrate proper staining of a human cell
H. Identify prepared cells upon presentation
I. Define common cytological terms
A. Identify human tissues types upon presentation
B. Categorize human tissues
C. Describe the functions of each tissue type
D. List locations of tissue types in the body
E. Explain how glands are classified
F. Define common histological terms
IV. Integumentary System
A. List functions of the skin
B. Identify the regions of the skin
C. Identify organs of the integumentary system upon presentation
D. List functions of the integumentary organs
E. Describe factors involved in skin color
F. Distinguish anomalies and pathologies of skin
G. Define common dermatological terms
V. Skeletal System
A. List functions of the skeletal system
B. Identify bone structures
C. Classify bones according to their shape
D. Summarize bone growth and remodeling
E. Recognize divisions of the skeleton
F. Identify bones of the skeleton
G. Identify foramina and processes of bones
H. Distinguish anomalies and pathologies of bone
I. Describe the effects of hormones that act on bone
J. Classify joints based on structure and movement
K. Identify joints
L. Distinguish pathologies of joints
VI. Muscular System
A. List the functions of the muscular system
B. Identify structures within skeletal muscle
C. Describe how muscles structure is organized
D. Identify the muscle organs of the human body upon presentation
E. Summarize the events of muscular contraction
F. Explain how energy is supplied to muscle
G. Summarize muscle fatigue
H. Explain the effect of oxygen on muscle
I. Describe how exercise affects skeletal muscle
J. Identify the three types of muscle
K. Summarize muscle group function
L. Define common terms associated with muscle and kinesiology
M. Distinguish common muscle pathologies
VII. Nervous System
A. List the functions of the nervous system
B. Describe how nervous tissue is organized
C. Identify the types of nerve cells
D. List functions of nerve cells
E. Identify structures within nerve cells
F. Explain how an injured nerve may regenerate
G. Explain nerve cell potentials
H. Summarize the events at a synapse
I. Distinguish between types of post synaptic potentials
J. List factors that affect post synaptic potentials
K. List the components of the reflex arc
L. Summarize the importance of nerve pathway organization
M. Identify the meninges
N. Distinguish between CNS and PNS
O. Identify the organs of the CNS
P. Identify the major parts of the brain and spinal cord
Q. List the functions of the organs of the CNS
R. Distinguish association areas of the cerebral cortex
S. Distinguish between ANS and SNS
T. Summarize the functions of the ANS
U. Distinguish between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS
V. Identify the nerves of the PNS
W. Distinguish common nervous system pathologies
X. Identify special senses
VIII. Endocrine System
A. Identify organs that secrete hormones
B. Classify glands based on structure
D. Classify glands based on function
E. Explain hormone pathways and regulation
IX. Cardiovascular System
A. Identify the components of blood upon presentation
B. List the functions of each type of blood cell
C. Explain control of red blood cell production
D. List the functions of blood plasma
E. Summarize blood typing procedures
F. Summarize the events in coagulation
G. Identify the structures of the heart
H. Describe the pathway of blood through the heart chambers
I. Explain heart contraction
J. Summarize the events of the conduction system
K. Identify common physiological tests
L. Perform vital signs
M. Identify the types of blood vessels
N. Locate major arteries and veins of the body
O. List functions of each type of blood vessel
P. Distinguish common heart, blood, and vessel anomalies using standard
Q. Define terminology used in the medical community relating to
X. Digestive System
A. Identify digestive organs, their regions, and structures upon
B. Distinguish between alimentary canal organs and accessory organs
C. List and explain the functions of the digestive system
D. List the functions of each digestive organ
E. Explain how the contents of the alimentary canal are moved
F. Describe common pathologies of digestive organs
G. Summarize factors that affect digestion
XI. Respiratory System
A. Identify respiratory organs, their regions, and structures upon
B. Summarize the events in inspiration and expiration
C. List and explain the functions of the respiratory system
E. Define common respiratory ailments
F. List nonrespiratory air movements
G. Classify respiratory organs as upper or lower tract
H. Explain the exchange of gases at the alveolar level
I. Distinguish common breathing anomalies using standard medical
J. Identify clinical pathologies of the respiratory system
XII. Urinary System
A. Identify urinary organs, their regions, and structures upon
B. List and explain the functions of the urinary system
C. Trace the pathway of blood through the kidney
D. Explain the events of urine formation
E. Summarize the events of micturition
F. Identify common anomalies of the urinary system
XIII. Reproductive System
A. Identify reproductive organs, their regions, and structures upon
B. List the functions of each reproductive organ
C. Identify analogous organs of both gender systems
D. Explain how hormones control sexual characteristics
E. Trace the complete path of sperm cells
F. Trace the complete path of an egg through fertilization and
G. Identify common STDs
H. Lymphatic System
I. Identify lymphatic organs
J. List the functions of the lymphatic system
Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules | Boundless …
Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
2017 Joint Rail Conference - Proceedings | ASME DC
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Chapter 15 – Health Protection and Promotion
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