10/01/2018 · Definition of Contact Hypothesis ..
The contact hypothesis has proven to be highly effective in alleviating prejudice directed toward ..
given its contemporary form by Gordon W
Thought box: Considering either the material above on prejudice/stereotypes, what solutions would you propose for a given intolerance? (Feel free to talk about a specific context as well, such as the school system or the workplace). If possible, tie your explanation to specific terms in the readings and this Webpage.
Proposes a modern sexism scale that is similar to modern racism. Finds that contemporary prejudice against women comes in the form of denied discrimination and lack of support for policies to help women.
Allport in The Nature of Prejudice ..
An alternative approach starts from the assumption that different processes can prevail at the individual and group levels. As H. D. Forbes has shown in Ethnic Conflict (1997), the apparently contradictory correlations can be explained by a theory that distinguishes levels of analysis rather than situations or conditions of contact. When only individuals are compared, the standard correlation appears, but when all the individuals in an area are averaged and compared with all the individuals in another area of greater or less contact, generally speaking, the relationship is reversed. This approach is consistent with the contact hypothesis as a generalization about individuals, but it deprives it of much of its broader significance for social theory and public policy. It is not surprising, therefore, that recent reviews of the relevant literature still show a virtually undiminished allegiance to Allport’s classic formulation, despite its empirical shortcomings.
...tact can indeed reduce prejudice when it is sustained and intimate, between individuals of equal status who share important goals, and supported by the institution within which it occurs (Amir, 1976; =-=Brewer & Miller, 1984-=-; Stephan, 1985). The contact hypothesis focuses on majority group members’ direct contact experiences, that is, their personal, face-to-face interactions with members of a stigmatized group. The mass...
Chapter 9 - Psychology of prejudice Flashcards | Quizlet
Difficulties arise when these results are extended from individuals to groups. It seems obvious that if an increase in contact improves the attitudes of individuals, it must do the same for the relations between groups, even if only a little. Nevertheless, both casual observation and careful studies suggest that there can be strong positive correlations at the group level between personal contact and negative attitudes. Comparisons of American states or counties on black-white contact and racial prejudice and discrimination provide the clearest illustrations of this relationship.
As a conjecture about the effects of personal contact on individual attitudes, the hypothesis is easy to test, and the results of several hundred published studies are relatively easy to summarize. Regardless of whether the supposedly necessary conditions for favorable outcomes have been satisfied, greater contact is almost always associated, more or less strongly, with such outcomes (less prejudice and greater acceptance).
Start studying Chapter 9 - Psychology of prejudice ..
-the contact must be of an intimate rather than a casual nature
The ‘Contact Hypothesis’ was first proposed by psychologist Gordon Allport in his 1954 book The Nature of Prejudice.
two other problems w/ contact hypothesis
In The Nature of Prejudice ..
Contact Hypothesis (SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY) - …
Contact hypothesis - Wikipedia
Contact theory and the concept of prejudice: …
There are several books and chapters that offer a broad view of the social psychological research on prejudice and stereotyping. There are two texts that are excellent for undergraduates. First, covers the general field of research on stereotyping and prejudice, providing an excellent primer for theory and research on the causes and consequences of prejudice and stereotyping. Second, is a collection of key social psychological readings on stereotypes and prejudice. The key readings text is especially useful, as it can be assigned in sections for a general class or used in its entirety for a class specifically on prejudice. Beyond the introductory text and primer for key readings, though potentially unsuitable for undergraduate use, there are three chapters from the that are useful for researchers who want to get an understanding of the progression of research and focus of current theory and research. Although there is some overlap in the content of the three handbook chapters, each chapter makes a notably unique contribution that warrants their inclusion. provides a history and thorough review of influential perspectives on prejudice and stereotyping. Expanding on , provides an additional in-depth perspective on theories of how groups are created and sustained. focuses on the bases of group-based biases and provides a thorough consideration of theory and research on stereotype change and prejudice reduction. Finally, in addition to the aforementioned chapters, ; ; and are collections of contemporary theory and research on stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination that characterize the current state of thinking and are appropriate for graduate students and researchers.
Contact hypothesis | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM …
This collection takes a look back at Gordon Allport’s conceptualizations of prejudice and updates and extends his work with contemporary theories and evidence collected in the fifty years after the publication of On the Nature of Prejudice.
Why it is unacceptable to dismiss astrology as rubbish.
Prejudice and stereotyping are biases that work together to create and maintain social inequality. Prejudice refers to the attitudes and feelings—whether positive or negative and whether conscious or non-conscious—that people have about members of other groups. In contrast, stereotypes have traditionally been defined as specific beliefs about a group, such as descriptions of what members of a particular group look like, how they behave, or their abilities. As such, stereotypes are cognitive representations of how members of a group are similar to one another and different from members of other groups. Importantly, people can be aware of cultural stereotypes and have cognitive representations of those beliefs without personally endorsing such stereotypes, without feelings of prejudice, and without awareness that such stereotypes could affect one’s judgment and behavior. Prejudice and stereotyping are generally considered to be the product of adaptive processes that simplify an otherwise complex world so that people can devote more cognitive resources to other tasks. However, despite any cognitively adaptive function they may serve, using these mental shortcuts when making decisions about other individuals can have serious negative ramifications. The horrible mistreatment of particular groups of people in recent history, such as that of Jews, African Americans, women, and homosexuals, has been the major impetus for the study of prejudice and stereotyping. Thus, the original conceptions and experiments were concerned almost entirely with conscious, negative attitudes and explicitly discriminatory actions. However, as the social acceptability of prejudice and stereotypes has changed, the manifestations of prejudice and stereotypes have also changed. In response to these changes, and given that people who reject prejudice and stereotyping can still unwittingly internalize stereotypic representations, the study of prejudice and stereotyping has recently moved to include beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that could be considered positive and not obviously or overtly prejudiced. Importantly, even when prejudice and stereotypes are ostensibly positive (e.g., traditional women are wonderful and adored), they preserve the dominance of powerful groups: they not only limit the opportunities of stereotyped groups but also produce a litany of negative outcomes when those group members defy them. Because of these new conceptions of bias, there have also been methodological adaptations in the study of prejudice and stereotyping that move beyond the conscious attitudes and behaviors of individuals to measure their implicit prejudice and stereotypes as well. This article gives a quick tour through the social psychological study of prejudice and stereotyping to inform the reader about its theoretical background, measurement, and interventions aimed to reduce prejudice.
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