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When this happens current flows through thedielectric and some of the stored charge is lost.
then passing an electric current through the body ..
These requirements also do not apply to fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization materials, generated primarily from the combustion of fuels (including other fossil fuels) other than coal, for the purpose of generating electricity unless the coal comprises more than fifty percent (50%) of the fuel burned on a total heat input or mass input basis, whichever results in the greater mass feed rate of coal (see § 266.112). Fuel mixtures that contain less than 50% coal are not considered to be CCR, but other fossil fuel wastes. Other fossil fuels that are typically co-combusted with coal are oil and natural gas. In the May 22, 2000 Regulatory Determination, EPA determined that it is not appropriate to establish national regulations applicable to oil combustion wastes (OCW) because: (1) We found in most cases that OCW, whether managed alone or co-managed, are rarely characteristically hazardous; (2) we have not identified any beneficial uses that are likely to present significant risks to human health or the environment; (3) we identified no significant ecological risks posed by land disposal of OCW; (4) we identified only one documented damage case involving OCW in combination with coal combustion wastes, and it did not affect human receptors; and (5) except for two unlined surface impoundments, we have not identified any significant risks to human health and the environment associated with any waste management practices. Similarly, EPA determined that regulating natural gas combustion wastes is not warranted because the burning of natural gas produces virtually no solid waste. Therefore, the Agency has determined that regulations for wastes generated primarily from the combustion of fuels (including other fossil fuels) other than coal are not warranted unless the fuel mixture consists primarily of coal.
After reviewing all the comments and additional data received, EPA is promulgating this final rule to regulate the disposal of CCR as solid waste under subtitle D of RCRA. This rule addresses the risks from structural failures of CCR surface impoundments, groundwater contamination from the improper management of CCR in landfills and surface impoundments and fugitive dust emissions. The rule has also been designed to provide electric utilities and independent power producers generating CCR with a practical approach for implementation of the requirements and has established implementation timelines that take into account, among other things, other upcoming regulatory actions affecting electric utilities and site specific practical realities. In order to ease implementation of the regulatory requirements for CCR units with state programs, EPA is also providing the opportunity for states to secure approval of its CCR program through the State Solid Waste Management Plan (“SWMP”). EPA strongly recommends that states take advantage of this process by revising their SWMPs to address the issuance of the revised federal requirements in this final rule, and to submit revisions of these plans to EPA for review. EPA would then review and approve the revised SWMPs provided they demonstrate that the minimum federal requirements in this final rule will be met. In this way, EPA's approval of a revised SWMP signals EPA's opinion that the state SWMP meets the minimum federal criteria.
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Consistent with the intergovernmental consultation provisions of section 204 of the UMRA, EPA initiated pre-proposal consultations with governmental entities affected by this rule. In developing the regulatory options for the CCR rule, EPA consulted with small governments according to EPA's UMRA interim small government consultation plan developed pursuant to section 203 of UMRA. EPA's interim plan provides for two types of possible small government input: Technical input and administrative input. According to this plan, and consistent with section 204 of UMRA, early in EPA's 2009 process for developing the CCR rule, EPA implemented a small government consultation process consisting of two consultation components: (1) A series of meetings in 2009 for purposes of acquiring technical input from State government officials, and (2) letters to 10 organizations representing elected State and local government officials to inform and seek input for the rule's development, as well as to invite them to a meeting held September 16, 2009 in Washington DC to provide input on the rule. Following are the meetings held with state officials in 2009: (1) February 27 with the Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) Coal Ash Workgroup (Washington DC), (2) March 22-24 with the Environmental Council of States (ECOS) Spring Meeting (Alexandria VA), (3) April 15-16 with the ASTSWMO Mid-Year Meeting (Columbus OH), (4) May 12-13 with the EPA Region IV State Directors Meeting (Atlanta, GA), (5) June 17-18 with the ASTSWMO Solid Waste Managers Conference (New Orleans, LA), (6) July 21-23 with the ASTSWMO Board of Directors Meeting (Seattle, WA), and (7) August 12 with the ASTSWMO Hazardous Waste Subcommittee Meeting (Washington DC). ASTSWMO is an organization with a mission to work closely with the EPA to ensure that its state government members are aware of the most current developments related to state waste management programs. ECOS is a national non-profit, non-partisan association of state and territorial environmental agency leaders. As a result of these meetings EPA received letters in mid-2009 from 22 state governments as well as a letter from ASTSWMO expressing their stance on CCR regulatory options.
The RIA estimates the rule may affect 414 coal-fired electric utility plants, and may have a nationwide average annualized cost of approximately $509 million per year (at a 7% discount rate). Of this amount, average annualized costs to State/local governments total $36 million, and the average annualized cost to the private sector totals approximately $436 million per year (the remainder of the total costs are the costs associated with compliance at federally-owned electric utility plants.)
Consolidation/synthesis of Materials by Electric Current ..
Review of elements of Quantum Mechanics; Introduction to relativistic Quantum mechanics: Dirac equation, probability current, Dirac bilinears; Need for a quantum theory fields; Symmetries and conservation laws: Continuous symmetries, Noether's theorem and conserved current; Gauge invariance and introduction to QED; Particle kinematics: review of special relativity and scattering cross sections; Group theory and Particle Physics: Lie groups and Lie algebra; Introduction to the Standard model: Electroweak Lagrangian, spontaneous symmetry breaking; LHC and Higgs Physics; Introduction to strong interaction physics; Open problems in Particle Physics.
Review of electrostatics and magnetostatics: Laplace and Poisson equations, uniqueness theorem, boundary-value problems, Lorentz force. Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves, Poynting theorem. Gauge transformations and gauge invariance, electromagnetic potentials, wave propagation in conductors and dielectrics, Lorentz theory of dispersion, complex refractive index. Special relativity, Minkowski space and four vectors, concept of four-velocity, four acceleration and higher rank tensors, relativistic formulation of electrodynamics, Maxwell equations in covariant form, gauge invariance and four-potential, the action principle and electromagnetic energy momentum tensor. Liénard-Weichert potentials, radiation from an accelerated charge, Larmor formula, Bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, multipole radiation, dispersion theory, radiative reaction, radiative damping, scattering by free charges; applications to wave-guides, fibres and plasmas. Radiation reaction from energy conservation; Problem with Abraham-Lorentz formula; Limitations of Classical electrodynamics. Special Lecture Topics: Plasma physics , Plasma and its occurrence in nature, uniform but time-dependent magnetic field : Magnetic pumping; Magnetic bottle and loss cone; MHD equations, Magnetic Reynold's number, Pinched plasma; Bennett's relation.
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Additionally, EPA anticipates that some owners or operators will decide to permanently cease operation of a coal-fired power plant in response to the combined effects of new and/or existing statutory or regulatory requirements promulgated under the Clean Air Act and under the Clean Water Act (e.g. the proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point Source Category. See , in combination with market dynamics. As discussed earlier in this preamble, RCRA section 1006(b) directs EPA to integrate the provisions of RCRA for purposes of administration and enforcement and to avoid duplication, to the maximum extent practicable, with the appropriate provisions of other EPA statutes, including the CAA and the CWA. As noted earlier, section 1006(b) conditions EPA's authority to reduce or eliminate RCRA requirements on the Agency's ability to demonstrate that the integration meets RCRA's protectiveness mandate ((b)(1)). See Chemical Waste Management v. EPA, 976 F.2d 2, 23, 25 (D.C. Cir. 1992). The provisions of § 257.103(b) are fully consistent with the direction in section 1006(b) to account for the provisions of other EPA statutes which may lead an owner or operator to close a coal-fired power plant.
Consolidation/synthesis of materials by electric current ..
The Florida Electric Power Coordinating Group (FCG) stated in its comments that FCG member experience with CCR landfill closure has “demonstrated the need for a period of time greater than 180 days to complete closure activities.” However, the commenter did not provide any information indicating how long such closures actually took, nor any information to substantiate their claim. See EPA-HQ-RCRA-2012-0028-0064.
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As previously discussed, owners or operators are required to notify State Directors and/or the appropriate Tribal authority when specific documentation has been placed in the operating record and on the owner or operator's publicly accessible Web site. In most instances these notifications must be certified by a qualified professional engineer and may, in certain instances will be accompanied with additional information and or data supporting the notification. For example under § 257.106(f)(1), within 60 days of commencing construction of a new CCR unit, a notification of the availability of the design criteria specified under § 257.105(f)(1) or (f)(3) in the operating record and on the owner or operator's publicly accessible Internet site. If however, the owner or operator of the CCR units elects to install an alternative composite liner, the owner or operator must also submit to the State Director and/or appropriate Tribal authority a copy of the alternative composite liner design which has been certified by a qualified professional engineer.
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