Call us toll-free

Synthesis Of Aspirin Lab Equation

"Chemistry 104: Synthesis of Aspirin." Chemistry 104: Synthesis of Aspirin.

Approximate price

Pages:

275 Words

$19,50

CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR ASPIRIN SYNTHESIS

Kathryn E. Uhrich was born in Aberdeen, SD, in 1965. She received a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of North Dakota (1986) and M.S. (1989) and Ph.D. (1992) degrees from Cornell University. She held post-doctoral positions at AT&T Bell Laboratories and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1993−1995), before moving to her present post as Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Trained in organic and polymer synthesis, her research interests have included linear and dendritic polymers, photoresists, and biomaterials for bone replacement. Her current research activities are in the design, synthesis, and characterization of novel, organic polymers that have medical relevance.

Aspirin, also known as 'acetylsalicylic acid', has a chemical formula of C9H8O4.

illustrates a hypothetical dose-response relationship for a toxic response by individuals in any given population. This generic diagram might represent bronchogenic carcinoma in response to the number of cigarettes smokes, chloracne as a function of dioxin levels in the workplace, asthma as a function of air concentrations of ozone or aldehyde, sunburn in response to ultraviolet light, decreased clotting time as a function of aspirin intake, or gastrointestinal distress in response to the number of jalapeño peppers consumed. Generally, in each of these instances, the greater the exposure, the greater the toxic response. Most of the population will exhibit the mean and standard deviation of toxic response as a function of dose. The "resistant outlier" (lower right in ) is an individual having less of a response at higher doses or exposures. A “sensitive outlier” (upper left) is an individual having an exaggerated response to a relatively small dose or exposure. These outliers, with extreme differences in response compared to the majority of individuals in the population, may represent important genetic variants that can help scientists in attempting to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of a toxic response.

14.02.2009 · Synthesis of Aspirin..equation

Write chemical equation representing synthesis aspirin ..

Economic factors are specifically related to the volume of materials that must be tested. A plethora of new cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, chemicals and household products is introduced into the market every year. All of these products must be evaluated for their potential toxicity. In addition, there is a backlog of chemicals already in use that have not been adequately tested. The enormous task of obtaining detailed safety information on all of these chemicals using traditional whole animal testing methods would be costly in terms of both money and time, if it could even be accomplished.

There are also societal issues that relate to public health and safety, as well as increasing public concern about the use of animals for product safety testing. With regard to human safety, public interest and environmental advocacy groups have placed significant pressure on government agencies to apply more stringent regulations on chemicals. A recent example of this has been a movement by some environmental groups to ban chlorine and chlorine-containing compounds in the United States. One of the motivations for such an extreme action lies in the fact that most of these compounds have never been adequately tested. From a toxicological perspective, the concept of banning a whole class of diverse chemicals based simply on the presence of chlorine is both scientifically unsound and irresponsible. Yet, it is understandable that from the public’s perspective, there must be some assurance that chemicals released into the environment do not pose a significant health risk. Such a situation underscores the need for more efficient and rapid methods to assess toxicity.

write chemical equation representing synthesis ..

As adequate human data are seldom available, the assessment of risk for chemical-induced immunosuppression in humans is in the majority of cases based upon animal studies. The identification of potential immunotoxic xenobiotics is undertaken primarily in controlled studies in rodents. In vivo exposure studies present, in this regard, the optimal approach to estimate the immunotoxic potential of a compound. This is due to the multifactoral and complex nature of the immune system and of immune responses. In vitro studies are of increasing value in the elucidation of mechanisms of immunotoxicity. In addition, by investigating the effects of the compound using cells of animal and human origin, data can be generated for species comparison, which can be used in the “parallelogram” approach to improve the risk assessment process. If data are available for three cornerstones of the parallelogram (in vivo animal, and in vitro animal and human) it may be easier to predict the outcome at the remaining cornerstone, that is, the risk in humans.

Animal models to investigate chemical-induced immune suppression have been developed, and a number of these methods are validated (Burleson, Munson, and Dean 1995; IPCS 1996). For testing purposes, a tiered approach is followed to make an adequate selection from the overwhelming number of assays available. Generally, the objective of the first tier is to identify potential immunotoxicants. If potential immunotoxicity is identified, a second tier of testing is performed to confirm and characterize further the changes observed. Third-tier investigations include special studies on the mechanism of action of the compound. Several xenobiotics have been identified as immunotoxicants causing immunosuppression in such studies with laboratory animals.

Order now
  • Aspirin Chemical Equation - Jennarocca

    Chemical Equation Of Aspirin - Jennarocca

  • Synthesis Of Aspirin Equation PDF Download

    Synthesis of aspirin equation

  • Synthesis of Aspirin: Lab Analysis - Odinity

    A Student Researched Lab Experiment about the synthesis of Aspirin ..

Order now

Synthesis of aspirin chemical equation | scholarly search

Given the apparent lack of physiological substrates, it is possible that P450 enzymes in families CYP1, CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4 that have appeared in the past several hundred million years have evolved as a means of detoxifying foreign chemicals encountered in the environment and diet. Clearly, evolution of the xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s would have occurred over a time period which far precedes the synthesis of most of the synthetic chemicals to which humans are now exposed. The genes in these four gene families may have evolved and diverged in animals due to their exposure to plant metabolites during the last 1.2 billion years—a process descriptively termed “animal-plant warfare” (Gonzalez and Nebert 1990). Animal-plant warfare is the phenomenon in which plants developed new chemicals (phytoalexins) as a defence mechanism in order to prevent ingestion by animals, and animals, in turn, responded by developing new P450 genes to accommodate the diversifying substrates. Providing further impetus to this proposal are the recently described examples of plant-insect and plant-fungus chemical warfare involving P450 detoxification of toxic substrates (Nebert 1994).

RE: Synthesis of Aspirin..equation

Cancer mechanisms. Cancer is a multiplicity of diseases, and while the understanding of certain types of cancer is increasing rapidly due to the many molecular biological techniques that have been developed since 1980, there is still much to learn. However, it is clear that cancer development is a multi-stage process, and critical genes are key to different types of cancer. Alterations in DNA (somatic mutations) in a number of these critical genes can cause increased susceptibility or cancerous lesions (see “Genetic toxicology”). Exposure to natural chemicals (in cooked foods like beef and fish) or synthetic chemicals (like benzidine, used as a dye) or physical agents (ultraviolet light from the sun, radon from soil, gamma radiation from medical procedures or industrial activity) are all contributors to somatic gene mutations. However, there are natural and synthetic substances (such as anti-oxidants) and DNA repair processes which are protective and maintain homeostasis. It is clear that genetics is an important factor in cancer, since genetic disease syndromes such as xeroderma pigmentosum, where there is a lack of normal DNA repair, dramatically increase susceptibility to skin cancer from exposure to ultraviolet light from the sun.

Exp: Synthesis of Aspirin | ChemSkills

Dietary habits have an important influence on susceptibility to chemical toxicity, mostly because adequate nutrition is essential for the functioning of the body’s chemical defence system in maintaining good health. Adequate intake of essential metals (including metalloids) and proteins, especially the sulphur-containing amino acids, is necessary for the biosynthesis of various detoxificating enzymes and the provision of glycine and glutathione for conjugation reactions with endogenous and exogenous compounds. Lipids, especially phospholipids, and lipotropes (methyl group donors) are necessary for the synthesis of biological membranes. Carbohydrates provide the energy required for various detoxification processes and provide glucuronic acid for conjugation of toxic chemicals and their metabolites. Selenium (an essential metalloid), glutathione, and vitamins such as vitamin C (water soluble), vitamin E and vitamin A (lipid soluble), have an important role as antioxidants (e.g., in controlling lipid peroxidation and maintaining integrity of cellular membranes) and free-radical scavengers for protection against toxic chemicals.

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order