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Problem:How to transfer information across distance and time?

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Wason selection task - Wikipedia

Although we will study hypothesis testing in situations other than for a single population mean (for example, for a population proportion instead of a mean or in comparing the means of two different populations), in this section the discussion will always be given in terms of a single population mean .

A number of cognitive scientists have criticized the modularity hypothesis, ..

Evolutionary psychologists (see, for example, Buss, 2005;Durrant & Ellis, 2003; Pinker, 2002; Tooby & Cosmides,2005) argue that much of human behavior is generated by thatevolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestralenvironments. They hypothesize, for example, that humans haveinherited special mental capacities for acquiring language, makingit nearly automatic, while inheriting no capacity specifically forreading and writing. Other adaptations, according to EP, mightinclude the abilities to infer others' emotions, to discern kinfrom non-kin, to identify and prefer healthier mates, to cooperatewith others, and so on. Consistent with the theory of naturalselection, evolutionary psychology sees organisms as often inconflict with others of their species, including mates andrelatives. For example, mother mammals and their young offspringsometimes struggle over weaning, which benefits the mother morethan the child. Humans, however, have a marked capacity forcooperation under certain conditions as well.

to address their hypothesis about cheater detection

hypothesis that humans would perform better on cheater-detection Wasons and carried ..

The Hunting Hypothesis might explain the emergence of humancoalitions as a psychological mechanism. With men being theproviders for the family, their lives depended on hunting wildgame. They could not risk going about such an arduous task on theirown. If they did it alone they risked not catching anything at allsometimes. Also, the meat would spoil if they caught a large animaland could not finish it on their own. Therefore, they huntedtogether with other men and shared their food. These humancoalitions can be seen today. One form of evolutionary adaptivenesscan be found in morning sickness in women during their firsttrimester. Over thousands of years, women's bodies have adapted tothe dangers that the environment may pose to the developing fetuswhen they eat something. Therefore, during this time many womenexperience disgust and even vomiting when eating certain foodswhich may be toxic to the fetus. Vomiting is the body's way ofcoping with the toxins in the environment and keeping them fromreaching the child during this critical period when the vitalorgans are being formed. The function of this physiologicalreaction was to protect the fetus.

The Hunting Hypothesis might explain the emergence of humancoalitions as a psychological mechanism. With men being theproviders for the family, their lives depended on hunting wildgame. They could not risk going about such an arduous task on theirown. If they did it alone they risked not catching anything at allsometimes. Also, the meat would spoil if they caught a large animaland could not finish it on their own. Therefore, they huntedtogether with other men and shared their food. These humancoalitions can be seen today. One form of evolutionary adaptivenesscan be found in morning sickness in women during their firsttrimester. Over thousands of years, women's bodies have adapted tothe dangers that the environment may pose to the developing fetuswhen they eat something. Therefore, during this time many womenexperience disgust and even vomiting when eating certain foodswhich may be toxic to the fetus. Vomiting is the body's way ofcoping with the toxins in the environment and keeping them fromreaching the child during this critical period when the vitalorgans are being formed. The function of this physiologicalreaction was to protect the fetus.

the module is described as a specialized cheater-detection module

this experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that a Wason task ..

Values of the sample mean that are smaller and smaller are less and less likely to come from a population for which the population mean is 75. Thus if the sample mean is far less than 75, say around 60 minutes or less, then we would certainly reject 0, because we know that it is highly unlikely that the average of a sample would be so low if the population mean were 75. This is the for rejection: what we actually observed () would be so rare an event if = 75 were true that we regard it as much more likely that the alternative hypothesis

Evolutionary psychologists (see, for example, Buss, 2005;Durrant & Ellis, 2003; Pinker, 2002; Tooby & Cosmides,2005) argue that much of human behavior is generated by thatevolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestralenvironments. They hypothesize, for example, that humans haveinherited special mental capacities for acquiring language, makingit nearly automatic, while inheriting no capacity specifically forreading and writing. Other adaptations, according to EP, mightinclude the abilities to infer others' emotions, to discern kinfrom non-kin, to identify and prefer healthier mates, to cooperatewith others, and so on. Consistent with the theory of naturalselection, evolutionary psychology sees organisms as often inconflict with others of their species, including mates andrelatives. For example, mother mammals and their young offspringsometimes struggle over weaning, which benefits the mother morethan the child. Humans, however, have a marked capacity forcooperation under certain conditions as well.

The Wason selection task ..
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  • Evolution of human intelligence - Wikipedia

    the hypothesis

  • Evolutionary psychology - Wikipedia

    The evolution of human intelligence is closely tied to the evolution of the ..

  • Criticism of evolutionary psychology - Wikipedia

    Social brain hypothesis ..

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(including a cheater-detection ..

The format of the testing procedure in general terms is to take a sample and use the information it contains to come to a decision about the two hypotheses. As stated before our decision will always be either

Cognitive hypothesis testing | Psychology Wiki | …

As the table shows, there are two ways to be right and two ways to be wrong. Typically to reject 0 when it is actually true is a more serious error than to fail to reject it when it is false, so the former error is labeled “Type I” and the latter error “Type II.”

Cognitive hypothesis testing is the development ..

Because the rejection regions are computed based on areas in tails of distributions, as shown in , hypothesis tests are classified according to the form of the alternative hypothesis in the following way.

Bizarre responses, rule detection and frontal ..

then the distribution involved is standard normal and the critical values are just The extra work that was done to find that = 7.89 and is eliminated. In every hypothesis test in this book the standardized test statistic will be governed by either the standard normal distribution or Student’s -distribution. Information about rejection regions is summarized in the following tables:

Memory and social interactions - Wikipedia

Think of the respirator example, for which the null hypothesis is , the claim that the average time air is delivered for respirators is 75 minutes. If the sample mean is 75 or greater then we certainly would not reject 0 (since there is no issue with an emergency respirator delivering air even longer than claimed).

Memory and social interactions The lead section of this ..

No matter what the context a test of hypotheses can always be performed by applying the following systematic procedure, which will be illustrated in the examples in the succeeding sections.

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