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Simple Model of Canopy Photosynthesis

Vertical canopy gradient in photosynthesis and monoterpenoid emissions: an insight into the chemistry and physiology behind.

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A Simple Model of Canopy Photosynthesis


Another positive attribute of LED Aquarium lights as per s recent study (August of 2009) is that LED used in marine aquariums that suffer with Marine Red Slime Algae (Cyanobacteria) can immediately eradicate Red Slime algae when used in a full spectrum lighting configuration. These "immediate" results were just two weeks.
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Extra resources for Canopy Photosynthesis: From Basics to Applications

Implications of these tests:

This controlled test has aquatic implications, as photosynthesis is the same whether it be a terrestrial plant, a freshwater aquatic plant, or symbiotic zooanthellic algae found in corals.
The main difference would be that light energy is quickly absorbed by water, especially red light waves and many modern high-end LED fixtures such as an EcoTech Radion, AI Sol Vega Blue, ZetLight ZT 6600, AAP Fiji Blue, AAP Ocean Blue NP, and AAP Reef White 2000 produce the light energy for deeper aquarium water penetration more comparable to the popular 20k "Radium" Metal Halides.

Decagon Devices - Photosynthesis and Canopies

Important Definitions as it applies PAR in plants & zooanthellic algae:

In fact these lamps are even a good choice for many aquariums such as 60 gallons and larger since each fixture can be linked together forming a larger fixture.
For instance I have used two T2s linked together for some 60 gallon FW aquarium and two sets of two (placed in parallel in the hood) for planted 60 gallon FW aquariums.
T2 Fixtures/lights also work well in Marine Aquariums (particularly pico/nano reef & Refugiums) since these lamps in the 6400 K version have a high output in PAR required for symbiotic algae that live within corals. As well actinic/blue versions of the T2 light are now available to the consumer.

Therefore, the canopy photosynthesis model proposed in this study provides a powerful and useful tool for understanding and predicting DM production of cocksfoot understorey pastures in silvopastoral systems.

Canopy Photosynthesis: From Basics to Applications …

“Vertical Canopy Gradient in Photosynthesis and Monoterpenoid Emissions: An Insight into the Chemistry and Physiology Behind.”  80 (2013): 85–95.

Based on this model, cocksfoot DM production was predicted for silvopastoral systems in non-limiting situations and where a single, two, three, four or all five factors were limiting for: air temperatures from 2 to 37 °C, water status from Ψlp -0.1 to -16.0 bar (corresponding to a soil volumetric water content to 500 mm depth of 8.5 to 34%), foliage N content from 1.5 to 5.9%, regrowth duration from 20 to 60 days, and time course of shade (severe shade: 5% of open PPFD or moderate shade: 50% of open PPFD) from 1 to 180 minutes and the correspondent induction process (lag in the rise of photosynthesis rate to the maximum value) from 30, 60 and 180 minutes of severe shade.

These parameters were then incorporated into a canopy photosynthesis model with coefficients for respiration, partitioning and the main canopy characteristics that affect light interception (LAI and leaf angle).

“Vertical Canopy Gradient in Photosynthesis and Monoterpenoid Emissions: An Insight into the Chemistry and Physiology Behind.”  80: 85–95.
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  • Modeling photosynthesis in the canopy | Harvard Forest

    The rate at which photosynthesis occurs in one leaf might be calculated, but in canopies, leaves function collectively.

  • Canopy photosynthesis - Rice Research - Medicinal …

    1988) 393 CANOPY PHOTOSYNTHESIS, STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE AND YIELD OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM GROWN IN A WARM CLIMATE 1 Ajmer S

  • Canopy Photosynthesis: From Basics to Applications: …

    Download Canopy Photosynthesis: From Basics to Applications by Kouki Hikosaka, Ülo Niinemets, Niels P.R. Anten PDF

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Canopy Photosynthesis : From Basics to …

The point this makes/demonstrates is that while both lights are rated as 6500K, they are still not the same in their light energy output. Even among LED lights we can have differences of spectrographs depending upon emitters used.
Think about how mixing all paint colors will produce black, while the mixing of all light energy produces white. We as humans may notice this to some degree, however we do not have the ability to pick out particular colors such as a honey bee can. As well, photosynthetic aquatic life also has differing abilities to pick out the needed light energy for life processes and even though the PAR readings may be equal, the light energy that provides this overall PAR or kelvin "color" is NOT.

Scaling leaf photosynthesis to canopy in a mixed …

The picture to the left demonstrates this with two 15 Watt CFL (30 watts total) vs one 3rd generation 12 Watt Marine White LED (daylight 14,000K).

This picture is taken with a camera that filters out certain wave lengths allowing for a better viewing of the difference, which is otherwise not easy to discern. However, the picture shows how the LED on the left has less of the less efficient yellow & green than the CFL lights on the right.

Otherwise the light output appears the same, although this is still important when you consider, this is achieved with only 12 watts of LED vs 30 watts of Compact Fluorescent lights.
The picture below shows a spectrograph of two 6500K aquarium lights. One is an AAP AquaRay GroBeam and the other is a 6500 Aquarium CFL. The LED is rated at 12 watts while the CFL is 13 watts.While similar, it is clear to see the LED has more blue and a lower blue NM (fuller blue spectrum) amount as well as more red, less green, and the same yellow.The point this makes/demonstrates is that while both lights are rated as 6500K, they are still not the same in their light energy output. Even among LED lights we can have differences of spectrographs depending upon emitters used.
Think about how mixing all paint colors will produce black, while the mixing of all light energy produces white. We as humans may notice this to some degree, however we do not have the ability to pick out particular colors such as a honey bee can. As well, photosynthetic aquatic life also has differing abilities to pick out the needed light energy for life processes and even though the PAR readings may be equal, the light energy that provides this overall PAR or kelvin "color" is NOT.A Couple more points to better explain the concepts of PUR, "Useful Light Energy", or "Quality of light per application".

For further reading about PUR:*Below is a picture of a Reef Aquarium (88x32x24”) that includes Acropora corals lighted with ONLY VERY high PUR but lower wattage AAP AquaRay NP 1500 & 2000 LED lights (this tank has been running with these lights for 6 months at the time of the picture).

Maximization of Daily Canopy Photosynthesis: …

This is another concept to consider that we do not know all the "mechanisms" that drive it.
Basically photoinhibition is the damage to the light harvesting reactions of the photosynthetic capacity of a vascular plant, algae, or cyanobacterium by excess light energy trapped by the chloroplast.
This process can occur in in all organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. In both plants & cyanobacteria, blue light causes photoinhibition more efficiently than other wavelengths of visible light, although it has been demonstrated the red light can cause photoinhibition as well.

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