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Metabolic products of adrenaline and noradrenaline in human urine.

Adrenaline and noradrenaline are members of the catecholamine family of neurotransmitters and hormones.

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Excretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline in muscular work.

The synthetic pathway for noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline in neuron terminals and chromaffin cells. Tyrosine, derived from the diet, is taken up into catecholamine‐secreting neurons, where it is converted into ‐DOPA in the neuronal cytoplasm. After conversion of ‐DOPA into dopamine, the latter is taken up into the storage vesicles, where it is converted into NA by the enzyme DβH. NA that leaks out of the vesicles is converted into adrenaline in the cytoplasm of neurons that contain PNMT. Vesicle stores of NA and adrenaline are maintained by active uptake via a protein transporter in the vesicle membrane.

Metabolism of adrenaline after blockade of monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase.

Difference in the effectiveness of Ca2+ to evoke catecholamine secretion between adrenaline‐ and noradrenaline‐containing cells of bovine adrenal medulla.

(1966) In vitro release and uptake of noradrenaline in the rat iris.

A schematic representation of the distribution of noradrenaline‐releasing neurons in the rat brain. The brainstem nuclei that contain neurones the release for neurons that release noradrenaline or adrenaline (C1‐C3) are indicated, also. The main projections from the locus coeruleus (A6) are the (noradrenergic) dorsal bundle, dorsal longitudinal fasciculus and central tegmental tract. Some fibres of the dorsal bundle innervate the thalamus directly, whereas others, together with the central tegmental tract, join the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the caudal hypothalamus. This pathway then projects to many brain areas, including the amygdala nuclei, anterior thalamus, septum, olfactory areas and the neocortex. Fibres from the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus innervate the paraventricular nucleus and, possibly, the supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus. The medullary bundle, in which neurons from the locus coeruleus branch from the central tegmental tract, projects to the caudal medulla (not illustrated). Fibres from the central tegmental tract also descend to the spinal cord.

Immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis of the development of the noradrenaline‐and adrenaline‐storing cells in the adrenal medulla of the rat and pig.

the release of adrenaline (and noradrenaline) ..

In the periphery, release of noradrenaline and adrenaline from postganglionic sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla mediate sympathoadrenal (autonomic) responses in the target organs.

Knowledge of the metabolism of adrenaline and related compounds has undergone an unprecedented advance in the last two or three years. The reviewer believes that the principal steps of formation and breakdown of the catechol amines in mammals are now known. There remain, of course, many problems.

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  • 5 The Biosynthesis and Metabolism of the ..

    In the brain, adrenaline and noradrenaline contribute to the integration of autonomic, cognitive and emotional arousal.

  • 5 The Biosynthesis and Metabolism of the Catecholamines

    Adrenaline and noradrenaline cells in the adrenal medulla of the hamster: a morphological study of their innervation.

  • Metabolism of Adrenaline and Related Compounds - …

    Adrenaline and noradrenaline producing tumors of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerves.

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← Pharma Bulletin_43_Biosynthesis and metabolism of GABA.

Groups of mice were raised in social isolation or weresubjected to prolonged and increased social interaction, and thecatecholamine synthesizing (tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylethanolamineN-methyltransferase) and metabolizing (monoamine oxidase andcatecholamine-O-methyl transferase) enzymes were examined in the adrenalgland.

1957, Biosynthesis of adrenaline and noradrenaline ..

Phenylalanine and tyrosine constitute the two initial steps in the biosynthesis of dopamine, which, in its turn, is the metabolic precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline.


Because of the growing understanding of theimplication of catecholamines in behavioural changes, we examined theeffect of psychosocial stimulation and deprivation on the activity ofthe enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism ofcatecholamines.

Biosynthesis of Dopamine, Noradrenaline & Adrenaline …

Drugs used in affective disorders causemarked changes in uptake, storage, release and metabolism of theneurotransmitter noradrenaline in the peripheral and central nervoussystems4,5.

Catecholamine Synthesis and Tyrosine Metabolism ..

The rate of synthesis of adrenaline and noradrenaline is highly regulated and ensures that their intracellular store is maintained under normal physiological conditions.

Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrenaline" in this drawing) ..

Drugs such as guanethidine , another obsolete anti-hypertensive, potently inhibit release ofnoradrenaline from sympathetic nerve terminals. The mechanisms arecomplex including (a) initial uptake by uptake-1; (b) concentrationin vesicles, with displacement of noradrenaline from the vesicles,and possibly even (c) structural damage to sympathetic neurones.

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