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Charging ADP to form ATP in the mitochondria is called .

Thisbinding blocks the electron transport system in the mitochondriawhere ATP manufacture occurs (Goodsell, 1996, p.74).

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ATP-synthase converts ADP into ATP, a process called charging.

In some organisms, glycolysis is the only source of ATP. A familiar example is yeast growing under anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions. In this case, glucose is said to be fermented and ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the end products (Fig. 5). In contrast, all higher organisms can completely oxidize pyruvate to CO2 and water, using molecular oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. The conversion of glucose to pyruvate releases only a small fraction of the energy available in the complete oxidation of glucose. In aerobic organisms, more than 90% of the ATP made during glucose catabolism results from the oxidation of pyruvate.

ATPis formed as it is needed, primarily by oxidative processes inthe mitochondria.

FIGURE 9 Oxidation of fatty acids. Fats and oils are hydrolyzed to form glycerol and fatty acids. CoA derivatives of the fatty acids are oxidized in mitochondria by NAD+ and FAD to fi-oxo-derivatives. CoA cleaves these derivatives to yield acetyl CoA and a fatty acid CoA molecule that is two carbons shorter. The process continues until the fatty acid has been completely converted to acetyl CoA. The acetyl moiety is oxidized in the citric acid cycle to CO2 and water. The complete oxidation of a fatty acid of about the same molecular weight of glucose yields four times more ATP than that of glucose.

Questions on ATP Synthetase: Production of ATP

3. An outline of the ATP-synthase macromolecule showing its subunits and nanomachine traits.

No means of producing ATP existsthat is intermediate between these four basic methods and no transitionalforms have ever been found that bridge the gap between these fourdifferent forms of ATP production.

To assess the glucose dependence of tumor and primary Leydig cells directly, cells were cultured with the nonhydrolyzable glucose analog 2-DG, which serves as a competitive inhibitor of the glycolytic pathway []. We noted dose-dependent inhibition of glucose metabolism and steroid formation in both primary and MA-10 tumor cells. However, steroid production was more significantly affected in the tumor Leydig cells than in the primary cells, with maximal inhibition at lower glucose concentrations. Importantly, MA-10 cell ATP levels were significantly more sensitive to glycolytic inhibition than were primary cell ATP levels.

The molecular mechanism of ATP synthesis ..

Shown behind ATP-synthase is the membrane in which the ATP-synthase is mounted.

This is a schematic diagram showing the membranes of the mitochondrion. The purple shapes on the inner membrane represent proteins, which are described in the section below. An enlargement of the boxed portion of the inner membrane in this figure is shown in Figure 8, below.

The fatty acids are first converted to CoA derivatives at the expense of the hydrolysis of ATP and then transported into mitochondria where they are broken down sequentially, two carbon units at a time, by a pathway known as fi-oxidation (see Fig. 9). The fatty acyl CoA derivatives undergo oxidation at the carbon that is fi to the carboxyl carbon from that of a saturated carbon-carbon bond to that of an oxo-saturated carbon bond. Enzymes that contain FAD or use NAD+ as the electron acceptors catalyze these reactions. As is the case in the oxidation of carbohydrates, the NADH and FADH2 generated by the fi-oxidation of fatty acids are converted to their oxidized forms by the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which results in the formation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.

For the ATP that is charged in the mitochondria, ATP-synthase is located in the inner membrane.
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  • UBMB-Nicholson ATP Synthase Animation

    Then the ADP is usually immediatelyrecycled in the mitochondria where it is recharged and comes outagain as ATP.

  • According to the current model of ATP synthesis ..

    These hydrogens form molecules of NADH and FADH that, in mitochondria, are then used to make ATP.

  • in the mitochondria, where ATP synthase is located in the inner ..

    Located on the ATP synthase are three active sites,each of which converts ADP to ATP with every turn of the wheel.

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Mitochondrial diseases and genetic defects of ATP …

The problem behind the malfunctioning POMC is again in the mitochondria, which, this time, become larger and misshapen. Without mitofusin 2, mitochondria, in addition to being deformed, detach from the endoplasmic reticulum, the organelle involved in protein synthesis. “We believe that mitochondria use calcium and lipids stored in the reticulum to generate energy,” says Dietrich. When this chain of events is interrupted, both are damaged and malfunction. In this context, the mitochondria begin to release reactive types of oxygen, molecules that cause biochemical imbalances in the body. Under these conditions, the mitochondria fail to produce the necessary ATP for the POMC neurons to function, and while they are inactive, these neurons stop responding to leptin, the hormone responsible for signaling the body to feel sated. Satiety does not occur, and the gluttonous mice become efficient at accumulating fat.

Mitochondrial diseases and genetic defects of ATP ..

ATP synthetase (red) has two components: a proton channel (allowing diffusion of protons down a concentration gradient, from the intermembrane space to the matrix), and a catalytic component to catalyze the formation of ATP.

ATP synthase is formed in several successive steps

This flow of hydrogen ions causes the ATP synthase molecule to rotate and this, in turn, converts ADP + P into ATP (a reaction called phosphorylation).

Factor B is essential for ATP synthesis by mitochondria.

This creates a concentration gradient that causes the hydrogen ions to pass back through the inner membrane and, specifically, through an enzyme called ATP synthase.

ATP Production - The Mitochondria

Plants can also produce ATP in this manner in their mitochondriabut plants can also produce ATP by using the energy of sunlightin chloroplasts as discussed later.

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