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How is the structure of chloroplast adapted for photosynthesis

The major components of a chloroplast are as illustrated and explained below.

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Chloroplast Function in Plant Cell Structure - ThoughtCo

In , deforestation and the introduction of sheep was an effective method of turning forests into deserts. Within a few centuries, Crete was turned from thick forest to sheep pasture, and a civilization arose, briefly flourished, and vanished. In the Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean's periphery, introducing goats was another way to ensure that forests never reappeared. Goats easily climb into trees to eat them, but the primary damage that goats and sheep inflicted was that they ate any attempts by the forest to regenerate. Also, their hooves pounded the ground, flattening and compacting the soils, and completed the process begun with deforestation of killing the soil’s role in the hydrological cycle.

Starch synthesized through photosynthesis is stored in the stroma in the form of granules.

The process of transforming requires millions of years. When organic sediments are buried, most of the oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur of dead organisms is released, leaving behind carbon and some hydrogen in a substance called , in a process that is . Plate tectonics can subduct sediments, particularly where oceanic plates meet continental plates. There is an “oil window” roughly between 2,000 and 5,000 meters deep; if kerogen-rich sediments are buried at those depths for long enough (millions of years), (which produce high temperature and pressure) break down complex organic molecules and the result is the hydrocarbons that comprise petroleum. If organic sediments never get that deep, they remain kerogen. If they are subducted deeper than that for long enough, bonds are broken and the result is , which is also called . Today, the geological processes that make oil can be reproduced in industrial settings that can in a matter of hours. Many hydrocarbon sources touted today as replacements for conventional oil were never in the oil window, so were not “refined” into oil and remain kerogen. The so-called and are made of kerogen ( is soluble kerogen). It takes a great deal of energy to refine kerogen into oil, which is why kerogen is an inferior energy resource. Nearly a century ago in it took less than one barrel of oil energy to produce one hundred barrels, for an energy return on investment ("EROI" or "") of more than 100, in the Golden Age of Oil. Global EROI is declining fast and will fall to about 10 by 2020. The EROIs of those oil shales and oil sands are less than five and as low as two.

Water plays a ver important role in photosynthesis

The internal structure of the leaf is also adapted to promote efficient photosynthesis:

The respiration and photosynthesis cycles in complex organisms have been the focus of a great deal of scientific effort, and cyclic diagrams (, ) can provide helpful portrayals of how cycles work. Photosynthesis has several cycles in it, and Nobel Prizes were awarded to the scientists who helped describe the cycles. Chlorophyll molecules , with magnesium in their porphyrin cages, and long tails. Below is a diagram of a chlorophyll molecule. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

As with enzymes, the molecules used in biological processes are often huge and complex, but ATP energy drives all processes and that energy came from either potential chemical energy in Earth’s interior or sunlight, but even chemosynthetic organisms rely on sunlight to provide their energy. The Sun thus powers all life on Earth. The cycles that capture energy (photosynthesis or chemosynthesis) or produce it (fermentation or respiration) generally have many steps in them, and some cycles can run backwards, such as the . Below is a diagram of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

of leaf or chloroplast photosynthesis ..

Cell Structure and Function – Major Concepts and Learning Activities (revised 9/2015)

The net process of photosynthesis is described by the following equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 This equation simply means that carbon dioxide from the air and water combine in the presence of sunlight to form sugars, oxygen is released as a by-product of this reaction....

This overview presents key concepts that students often do not learn from standard textbook presentations and suggests a sequence of learning activities to help students understand how the parts of a cell work together to accomplish the multiple functions of a dynamic living cell. Suggested activities also reinforce student understanding of the relationships between molecules, organelles and cells, the diversity of cell structure and function, and the importance and limitations of diffusion. This overview provides links to web resources, hands-on activities, and discussion activities.

Plant hormones play an integral role in controlling the growth and development of plants.
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  • The chloroplast is contained by an envelope that consists of an ..

    The function of a leaf is photosynthesis – to absorb light and carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates.

  • role of chloroplast hydrogenase in the ..

    The role of the chloroplast is to absorb light energy from the sun and to convert it into chemical energy.

  • Function of the Chloroplast Hydrogenase in the …

    In order to produce carbohydrates, photosynthesis converts the energy in sunlight to chemical energy in sugar bonds.

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23/06/2016 · Role of chloroplast ..

During that “,” , , and the rise of grazing and predation had eonic significance. While many critical events in life’s history were unique, one that is not is multicellularity, , and some prokaryotes have multicellular structures, some even with specialized organisms forming colonies. There are , but the primary advantage was size, which would become important in the coming eon of complex life. The rise of complex life might have happened faster than the billion years or so after the basic foundation was set (the complex cell, oxygenic photosynthesis), but geophysical and geochemical processes had their impacts. Perhaps most importantly, the oceans probably did not get oxygenated until just before complex life appeared, as they were sulfidic from 1.8 bya to 700 mya. Atmospheric oxygen is currently thought to have remained at only a few percent at most until about 850 mya, although there are recent arguments that it remained low until only about 420 mya, when large animals began to appear and animals began to colonize land. Just as the atmospheric oxygen content began to rise, then came the biggest ice age in Earth’s history, which probably played a major role in the rise of complex life.

The main role of chloroplasts ..

Gaian and Medean dynamics have both played roles in the development of Earth and its biosphere, and positive and negative feedbacks have had impacts. Life with its negative feedback on hydrogen's loss to space, without which life as we know it on Earth probably would not exist. But there is also evidence that life contributed to mass extinction events.

an important role in photosynthesis, ..

Again, the dates for these events are rather rough, but if the creation of a chloroplast happened once and the creation of sexual reproduction happened once, then sexual reproduction would have needed to come before the chloroplast, as many plants produce sexually. If it turns out that the chloroplast really is 1.6 billion years old, then the current date for sexual reproduction would need to be pushed back, or the “sex was invented once” idea would have to be discarded, and biologists would probably decide that the date of sex appearing would need to be pushed back, even without fossil evidence of it.

to a better understanding of their role during photosynthesis

Just as were “invented,” somewhere between 1.6 bya and 600 mya a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium and both survived, and that cyanobacterium became the ancestor of all chloroplasts, which is the photosynthetic organelle in all plants. As with similar previous events, it appears that it , and all plants are descended from that unique event. The invention of the chloroplast , which were the first plants. The first algae fossils are from about 1.2 bya. Most algae species are not called plants, as they are not descended from that instance when a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium. The non-plant algae, such as , also have chloroplasts, from various “envelopment” events when algae chloroplasts were eaten and the grazers and chloroplasts survived. Below is the general outline of the tree of life today, in which bacteria and archaea combined to make eukaryotic cells, and in which the bacterium enveloped into a protist to make plants, and all complex life developed from protists. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

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