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29/09/2014 · One tailed two tailed hypothesis psychology >>> click to continue ..

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1 or 2 tailed hypothesis - The Student Room

This is called a .

Predicting the direction the results will take could involve predicting that something will increase or decrease, or that one group will get a higher score than another group.

A 1-tailed hypothesis involves "sticking your neck out" since you're more likely to be wrong if you try to predict the direction the results will take.

Why do psychologists frame 1-tailed hypotheses?

10/10/2014 · Two tailed hypothesis psychology >>> click to order essay ..

The debrief should make it clear that participants have the right to withdraw their data on being told the nature of the study. If serious deception has taken place then participants have the right to witness their data being destroyed!

This is a favourite question in which you are expected to describe and/or evaluate measures taken by psychologists to minimise the adverse effects of research. Obvious points to mention would be seeking consent, avoiding deception, providing the right to withdraw, debriefs and confidentiality.

For fuller marks some or all of the following could also be discussed:

Ethical guidelines and codes of conduct

Following the immoral experiments of the Nazis in WWII, each country set up its own set of guidelines for performing scientific research. In Britain the British Psychological Society (BPS) and in the USA the American Psychological Association (APA), produce codes of conduct for both experimentation and for clinical practice.

For human participants the codes cover topics already mentioned such as deception, consent, withdrawal of data, confidentiality etc.

Additionally all institutes that perform psychological research have ethical committees that consider whether or not particular pieces of research should be carried out. This body should have non psychologists that can express more objective views on research.

Obtaining consent and avoiding deception

Role playing
People are asked to act out the role of participants in problematical studies involving deception or psychological harm etc. Clearly these are less than satisfactory since people can only guess at how they would respond in such situations. When asked, fewer than 1% of people believe that they would obey in Milgram’s study!

Cost-benefit analysis and the Double Obligation Dilemma
Researchers are paid to carry out studies that uncover interesting and useful information about the human experience. As such they have an obligation to society and the tax payer that pays their wage. Psychologists also have an obligation to protect those who agree to take part in research from harm. Occasionally these obligations can come into conflict, as we saw with the Milgram and Zimbardo studies. In such cases a careful cost benefit analysis needs to be carried out prior to the commencement of research. Ethical committees need to carefully weigh up whether the costs incurred are worth the likely benefits gained. Trouble is… how can the benefits be assessed in advance? How can committees foresee the likely costs? Nobody believed Milgram’s participants would behave the way they did.

Aims and Hypotheses | tutor2u Psychology

Researchers investigating new areas where there isn't a lot of background research often start off with a 2-tailed hypothesis, then refine it to a 1-tailed hypothesis once the results start to take shape.

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17/01/2018 · There are two types of hypothesis:-H 1 ..

"Hypotheses" turn up in the Specification for the Cognitive Approach but you need to know how hypotheses are used in all the Approaches.

The Cognitive approach uses lab experiments which make use of hypotheses to ensure their internal validity.
Hypotheses can be directional (1-tailed) or non-directional (2-tailed); directional hypotheses predict a more specific result than non-directional ones.
Cognitive researchers must also frame a null hypothesis which states they will not find the result they are looking for.
If the results of an experiment reject the null hypothesis, this makes the experimental hypothesis more likely to be true.

An example of a hypothesis in the Cognitive Approach would be Schmolck et al.

This is a .

This usually merans just predicting that there will be a change (without saying what that change will be) or that there wil be a difference between two groups (without saying which group will do best or score higher).

A 2-tailed hypothesis involves "playing it safe" since whaever direction the results take, your prediction will be right; only if there's no change or no difference at all will your hypothesis be wrong..

Why do psychologists frame 2-tailed hypotheses?

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One and two tailed hypothesis psychology

As the significant two tailed values (p-values=0.771, =0.391 and =0.12) is greater than 5%, so we do not reject the null hypothesis and conclude at statistically the performance of graduate student do not vary with gender, residential area and accommodation. As the significant two tailed values (p-values=0.02 and =0.007) is less than 5%, so we reject the null hypothesis and conclude at statistically the performance of graduate student vary with schooling and medium of schooling.

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still tell us anything about people today. I have mentioned how for example conformity changes over time. Wars, for example tend to bring populations together and make us more conformist as was measured following the Falklands Conflict of 1982.
Methods of checking validity
Clearly it is useful for a psychologist to have some idea of whether or not tests are valid. There are a number of ways this can be done:

Meta analyses: data can be collected form lots of different studies in different parts of the World and see if results are similar. For example Bouchard & McGue compared findings for IQ tests between MZ twins and found similar levels of correlation between them all.

Concurrent validity: if we are measuring IQ we could compare the scores obtained to school tests in maths and English, or we could compare the results of personality tests with assessments by a person’s friends and family.

Predictive: a test should be able to predict later performance, behaviour or personality. So again, a high score on an IQ test should be able to predict later success at school etc.

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